What is solvent, classification, Physicochemical properties of solvent,Health hazards of solvents,Application of solvents?

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Solvent:

  • Solvent is a substance which dissolves the solute in the solution.
  • It is used to dissolve the solute.
  • Water is used to dissolve much number of substances so water is known as the universal solvent.
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Solvent

Solute + Solvent = Solution

For example, The sugar solution can be made by dissolving sugar crystals in water. Here, Sugar crystals are solute, water is the solvent used.

Classification:

The solvent can be classified as

  • Polar solvent
  • Non Polar solvent
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“Like dissolves Like”

  1. Polar solvent:

The substance which dissolves in polar solvent is known as polar molecules.

For Example, Water.

2. Non Polar solvent:

The substance which do not dissolve in water is known as non polar molecules.

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For Example, The aromatic compounds such as alcohols, amines, ketones, esters etc.,

Physicochemical properties of solvent:

Evaporation rate : The time required to change of solvent from liquid to vapour.

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Vapour pressure : The pressure of a liquid is in equilibrium with vapor at a given temperature.

Boiling point : The temperature at which the vapor pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure.

Explosive limit : The potential for explosion.

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Health hazards of solvents:

  • The short term exposure to solvents may cause irritation in eye, lungs and skin, headache, dizziness.
  • Organic solvents are carcinogenic, reproductive hazards and neurotoxins.
  • The long term exposure to solvents may cause liver, brain and kidney damage.
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Application of solvents:

  • Solvents are used to dissolve paints, pigments.
  • It is used as thinning agent.
  • It is used to clean automobile parts, tools and electronic goods.

Video :

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